Coin treasury of Astan Quds Razavi, is full of valuable coins, which are minted in different historical eras.
The works, which are reminiscent of the ancient history of this land. Speaking of which, wewill look over the best coins of this treasury, and we will become familiar with a small part of this works, which are maintained in the vicinity of the Eighth Imam (A.S.) Court.
Silver Dirham of Imam Reza (A.S.) Vicegerency Era
Following the appointment of Imam Reza (A.S.) to vicegerencyofMa'munAbbasi(198-218 AH) inRamadan 7th, the year201, gold coins (dinar) and silver coins(dirham) were minted for the occasion, and with the name of His Highness. The text on the coins in seven rows is as follows:
“By Allah, Muhammad is the divine Messenger, Ma'mun is Allah’s Caliph, which according to the command of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Reza (A.S), vicegerent of Muslims, Ali ibn Musa, the son of Ali ibnAbiTalib, is the owner of two ranks.” The text of the coin’smargin is,“Muhammad is the Messenger of God, and God sent him to guide, lead you to the truth and the religion of Islam, to manifest religion for everyone, though the polytheists are averse.”The text behind includes four rows as follows:
“There is no God,except Allah, he has no partner”. The text of inner edge of the coin is the following: “In the name of Allah,this dirham was minted in Samarkand in the year 202 AH” and the outer margin of the coinhas the following text: “To Allah belongs the command of this world and hereafter, and on that Day the believers will rejoice with the help of Allah.”
Vicegerencycoins of Samenal-Hujaj (A.S.) are minted in the cities of Merv, Samarkand, Fars, Isfahan, Mohammedia (Rey), and Nishapur, between 202-204 AH. A few examples of these coins, which are minted in Isfahan, Samarkand and Mohammedia between 202-203 AH, are displayed in the coincollections of Astan Quds Razavi.
Achaemenid Silver Shekels
Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid dynasty (530-550 BC), after the defeat of Croesus (the last king of Lydia), and the capture of Sardis in 547 BC, noticed the mintage of coins in the area, and continued to do so in there. The first coins of ancient Persia, with the figure of the Achaemenid kings at the time of Darius I (486-522BC) were minted. He minted the gold coins called Darik or Xarik (weighing approximately 8.5 g), and silver coins called Sikel or Shekel (weighing approximately 5.5 g). The image on the coins, shows the Achaemenid king with bows and arrows or spears, and the back of the coins with a rectangular indent.
Silver Tetra Drachma of Macedonian Alexander III
Macedonian Alexander III (323-336 BC), conqueror from Macedonia, known as Alexander the Great in the West, and knownin Iran as damned Alexander, in 331 BC, defeating the Iranian army under the command of Darius III, put an end to the reign the last king of the Achaemenid dynasty, and seized the massive Achaemenid territory and wealth. Image on the silver tetra drachma coin (four dirhams), is Macedonian Alexander III, profile view of Hercules, the mythical hero of ancient Greece, with a hat of lion skin, and the back of the coin shows Zeus (the great God of the ancient Greek), and the name of Alexander in Greek.
Silver Drachma of Farhad V, King of Parthia
FarhadV or Farhadak (2 BC to 4 AD),is the son of Farhad IV and Queen of Mozah, who grasped the throne after his father's murder. The image on the coin showsFarhadV profile, with long beard and curly hair, on both sides, two angels carry the monarchy ringto his head. On the back of the coin, the profile of Queen Mozah, with a glorious Crown and a pearl necklace can be seen which is an example of jewelry and jewelry making artof Iranian in the Sassanidera. The coinis minted in Rega (Rey today), and the six-year period ofParthian Farhad Vreign.
Piruz Silver Half Obol
Piruz,is the seventeenth Sassanid king, and the son of Sassanid Yazdgerd II (438-457 AD), who after overcoming his younger brother, HormizdIII (457-459 AD) gained the Kingship of Iran. The twenty-six-year period of Piruz reign, was coincided with a severe drought which lasted for seven years.
Among Sassanid coinsexhibited in this treasury,three silverDrachma of Sassanid Piruz, with no mintage date are available, which are minted inDarabgerd, Iranshahr, and Vah Artaxerxes. Silver Half ObolCoin, is another one from the SassanidKing without any mintage date. The coin weighs less than one-third of a gram, has a diameter of 12.26 mm, which makes it the lightest and smallest Sassanid coin of the treasury.
Silver Drachma of Sassanid Ghobad II
Ghobad II (Shiroyeh), after the dismissal of his father, Khosrow II (KhosrowParviz), in 628 AD, sat on the throne. The images on the coin shows the profile of GhobadII and the inscription of his name, and at the back, a censer and two Zoroastrian priests, and the inscription of the year and place of mintage in Pahlavi language. This coinis minted in the second year of Ghobad II ruling, and is mintedin the Ney (Nahavand) mint.
Oljaito Silver Dirham, with the Names of Twelve Shi’ite Imams (A.S.)
Sultan Muhammad KhodaBandehOljaito (703-716 AH), was the eighth Mongolian Ilkhan, who after Ghazan Khan became the ruler. This coin, at the end of his ruling, and after his conversion to Shi’ism, in Kashan is minted. The text on the coin is“The coinis minted in the era of the lord of the country, the sublime ruler, the master of humans’ soul, Sultan Olijato, helper of religion and world of the Khodabande Muhammad that Allah may give him eternal kingdom.” and the text on the back of the coin is“There is no god except the sole God, Muhammad is the Divine Messenger, Ali is the Divine successor, O’ Allah, salute Muhammad, Ali, Hassan, Hussein, Ali, Muhammad, Jaafar, Musa, Ali, Muhammad, Ali, Hassan and Muhammad.”Oljaitowas baptized in childhood with Christian name of Nicola, but later converted to Buddhism, and then converted to Islam and adopted the Hanafi religion, and after some debates with AllamehHelli, and NizamuddinMaraghee accepted Shi’ismand ordered to mint names of the twelve Shi’ite Imams (A.S.) on the coins.
Satie Beg Khatun Two Dirham Silver Coin
Satie Beg Khatun, daughter of Abu Sa'id, was the ninth and the last great Mongolian Ilkhan. She was the only Mongolian femaleIlkhan, who with obligation of the people around herin 739 AH, claimed the throne, and later the same year was dismissed from the ruling.
Rare Satie Beg Khatuntwo-dirhamsilver coin, is minted in the year 739 AH, and in the city of Hessn, and it weighs 1.33 grams. The Mint of Hessn, was of exuberant cities of Diyarbakir, which has the historical record of over 800 years.
Inscriptions on the coin are: “Justice seeker Sultan, Satie Beg Khan, may Allah give her the eternal kingdom” on the center “In the year (739)” on the sidelines and on the back of the coin inscriptions are,“There is no god but Allah” in the middle circle, and the name of the Prophet “(Muhammad al-Amin), the Messenger of Allah” in four circles around a central circle, and the name of Rashidun Caliphs on the margins.
Mardavij Bin Al-Ziar Gold Coin
Mardavij bin al-Ziar (315-323 AH), was the founder of al-Ziar Dynasty (315-471 AH), who ruled in the northern part of Iran, Jorjan, Qazvin and Tabarestan (Amol, Sari and Astarābād). Mardavij dinar coin, is minted in Mahal-Basra (Nihavand) in 322 AH. The text on the coin is, “Command of worldly and spiritual affairs is at the hand of Allah, in that day which believers will rejoice with the help of God, in the name of Allah, this dinar was minted in Basra, in the year 322 AH.” and “No god but sole God, he is unique, he has no partner, Abulghasem, son of Commander of the Faithful, MardavijibnZiar.” and the text at the back of the coin is“Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, he guided people to the right path, and the religion of truth to reveal Islam to everyone, though the polytheists are averse.”.
WireSilver Coins (Lari), Safavid ShahTahmasp I
During Safavidera, in addition to the usual coins, wire silver coins were also minted, which were similar to hairpin. The sides of these coins have inscriptions like other Safavid coins, so that on one side the inscription is“TahmaspSafaviHusseini, God may give him the eternal kingdom.”, and on the other side the inscription is“There is no god but the sole God, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, Ali, is the guardian and the vicegerent of Allah” can be seen. The coins were minted the first time in Lar, and this has caused them to be called "Lari". Wiresilver coins (Lari) ofSafavid Shah Tahmasp I,available in the Central Museum of Astan Quds Razavi, weigh about 4.80 to 4.94 grams, and their approximate length is 49.74 to 56.07 mm, and the diameter is 2.42 to 2.50 mm.
Silver Dirham of Ali bin Buyid(Imad al-Dawla/ 320 -338 AH)
Buyid Dynasty,the sons of Abu ShojaeBuyid, the son of FanaKhosrowDeilami, and of the local Shi’ite emirsin the northern Iran, who in the third and fourth centuries AH, coincided with the weakening of the Abbasid Caliphate, captured a large part of Iran, and dominated the center of Islamic caliphate. Buyidcoins in the treasury are all donations and they are minted between 324-405 AH, in various mints. Silver Dirham of Ali bin Buyid (Imad al-Dawla / 320 -338 AH), is the oldest coinof Buyid Dynasty in the treasury, which has the name of the Abbasid Caliph al-RaziBillahon it. The Coin is minted in 324 AH in Shiraz.